EDUCATION.(Redirected from SCHOOL; SCHOOL-TEACHER.)
- —Biblical and Pre-Talmudical Data:
- —In Talmudical Times:
- The Reform of Simon ben Sheṭaḥ.
- Education of Women.
- Post-Talmudic Education.
- Qualifications of a Teacher.
- In Northern Europe.
- The Wandering Scholar.
- In Amsterdam.
- Eighteenth Century.
- Modern Schools in Germany.
- General Compulsory Education.
- Education of Rabbis.
- Technical Training Among Jews.
The moral and religious training of the people from childhood up was regarded by the Jews from the very beginning of their history as one of the principal objects of life. Of Abraham the Lord says: "I have singled him out [A. and R. V. "known him"] to the end that he may command his children and his household after him that they keep the way of the Lord to do justice and judgment" (Gen. xviii. 19, Hebr.). All the festivals and ceremonies have for their object the inculcation of religious and moral lessons in the children (Ex. xii. 26 et seq.; xiii. 8, 14; Deut. iv. 9 et seq.; vi. 20 et seq.; xxxii. 7, 46). Especially are the fundamentals of the faith coupled with the admonition to teach the children and bring its truths by words and signs constantly and impressively to their consciousness (Deut. vi. 7, ix. 19).
The whole Law was at an early stage utilized for public instruction. The Deuteronomic law, whatever its contents were, was to be written "very clearly" on large stones on the highways, that all the people might read (Deut. xxvii. 1-8); and while each king or leader was to keep a copy of the Law and read therein all the days of his life (Deut. xvii. 18; comp. Josh. i. 8), all the people, "the men, women, and the little ones," were to assemble every seventh year at the close of the Sukkot festival to hear and to learn the Law. Out of this Biblical ordinance was evolved the custom of completing one consecutive reading of the Pentateuch at the Sabbath services within every three years (probably seven originally, later three and one-half, finally one year: Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., ii. 455; see Pentateuch and Liturgy). This custom, however, of reading the Law every Sabbath in public is so old that Josephus ("Contra Ap." ii. 17; "Ant." xvi. 2, 2§ 4), Philo ("De Septennario," 6), and Eusebius ("Præparatio Evangelica," viii. 7, 12) assign its origin to Moses (comp. Acts xv. 21).
At any rate "Torah," denoting originally "Law" (Ex. xxiv. 12; Lev. vi. 2, vii. 1, xxvi. 46), assumed in the course of time the meaning of "religious teaching" (Deut. i. 5, iv. 44; Mal. ii. 7; Ps. xix 8; cxix. 71, 174; Prov. iii. 1, iv. 2, vi. 23, vii. 2), and religion to the Jew became the synonym of common instruction. For a long time the priests and Levites, as the keepers of the Law, were the main instructors of the people (Deut. xxxi. 9, xxxiii. 10; Jer ii. 8, xviii. 8; Mal. ii. 6; II Chron. xvii. 7; Book of Jubilees, xxxi. 15). According to ancient rabbinical tradition, the tribe of Issachar produced many teachers of the Law (Gen. R. lxxii., xcix.; Sifre, Debarim, 354, based on I Chron. xi. 33); also the descendants of Jethro the Kenite are singled out as teachers (Mek., Yitro, 2; Ab. R. N. xxxv., after I Chron ii. 55).
The recital of the chapters Shema' and Wehayah Im Shamoa' (Deut. vi. 4-9, xi. 13-21) in the daily liturgy instituted by the founders of the Synagogue impressed each father with the obligation of teaching his children. Josephus ("Contra Ap." i. 12, ii. 18-25; "Ant." iv. 8, § 12), and Philo ("Legatio ad Caium," 16, 31) point with pride to the fact that Jewish children were from earliest childhood instructed and trained in the Law and the traditions of their fathers. The Books of Wisdom contain many pedagogic rules. Father and mother are regarded as the child's natural instructors (Prov. i. 8, iv. 1, vi. 20, xiii. 1, xxxi. 7; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxx. 1-13); "fear of the Lord," as the chief part or beginning of knowledge (Prov. i. 7; comp. ix. 10), The application of "the rod of correction" is often recommended (Prov. xiii. 24; xix. 18; xxii. 15; xxiii. 13; xxix. 15, 17), though to the intelligent re-proof is better than a hundred stripes (xvii. 10). The chief admonition is to train the child at the right age (xxii. 6), and the child's life itself is to be a continual training (Prov. i. 2, 7, 8). The daughters probably remained under the supervision of the mother until their marriage (Cant. viii. 5).
From the hands of the parents, whose place in royal houses was taken by tutors (
It is interesting to note that the commandment "teach them diligently to thy children" (Deut. vi. 8) was referred to the instruction of pupils (
How old the institution of the
- Hastings, Dict. Bible, s.v.;
- Cheyne and Black, Encyc. Bibl. s.v.;
- Hamburger, R. B. T. s.v. Erziehung and Unterricht;
- Schürer, Gesch. ii. 3, 419-426.
The period of book-learning or of the scribes ("soferim") has received its name from the practise of transcribing and commenting on the Book of the Law. In the latter years of the kingdom of Judah, and more especially under the discipline of the Exile, the religious teachings and the moral principles of the Law and the Prophets had assumed definite shape as the belief and religion of the people. After the end of the Exile it became necessary to preserve these teachings and the documents containing them. The education of the people passed from the hand of the prophet into those of the scribe or "sofer" (Mal. iv. 4). This period is introduced by Ezra the Scribe, who is extolled as the "restorer of the Torah" (Suk. 20a); and just as a band of disciples gathered around Samuel, so men gathered around Ezra, who, following Samuel's example, read the Law to the people distinctly and explained its meaning (Neh. viii. 5 et seq.). Ezra belonged to the priestly caste, to whom the task of education fell from this time forward, "for the priest's lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth: for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts" (Mal. ii. 7). Indeed, the body of scribes came from among the Levites (Neh. l.c.; II Chron. xxxv. 3, where the educational activity of the Levites is by an anachronism transferred to an earlier period). The men thus engaged are designated as
The scribes at first restricted their educational activities to adults, delivering free lectures in synagogues and schools (see Bet ha-midrash), while the education of children remained, as in olden times, in the hands of their fathers. But as boys often lacked this advantage, the state employed teachers in Jerusalem (B. B. 21a), to whose care the children from the provinces were entrusted; and as these did not suffice, schools were also established in the country towns. This arrangement must probably be referred to an ordinance of R. Simon b. Sheṭaḥ (Yer. Ket. viii., end), who was one of the presidents of the Sanhedrin during the last century of the Jewish state. These district schools were intended only for youths of sixteen and seventeen years of age who could provide for themselves away from home. The high priest Joshua b. Gamla instituted public schools for boys six and seven years of age in all the cities of Palestine, and on this account he was praised as the man who prevented teaching in Israel from being altogether neglected. It was said that no man who pretended to the title "Talmid ḥakam" ought to live in a place where there were no teachers for children (Sanh. 17b). One teacher was employed for every twenty-five boys. If the number reached forty, he was given an assistant ("resh dukna"; B. B. l.c.). Many rabbinical sayings indicate the extraordinary value placed by the Rabbis on education, on the school, and on the teacher. R. Eleazar b. Shamua' said:
"Let the honor of thy pupil be as much to thee as thine own, and the honor of thy companion ["ḥaber"] as much as the reverence for thy teacher, and the reverence for thy teacher as much as the reverence for God"
"The study of the Torah outweighs all other religious commands"
"Touch not my anointed [Ps. cv. 15]: this refers to the school children: and do not offend my prophets: this refers to the teachers."
"By the breath from the mouth of school children the world is sustained"
"Teaching must not be interrupted even for the reestablishment of the sanctuary in Jerusalem"
"Instruct thy son with the assistance of a good text"
"The advantage of reviewing is unlimited: to review 101 times is better than to review 100 times"
Education of Women.
"As I have taught you without pay, says God, so must you do likewise"
The duty to give free instruction refers, however, only to teaching in the academies, not to elementary instruction. Women were excluded from this instruction. While, on the one hand, they were required to be taught the Torah, on the other hand it was said by R. Eleazar that he who instructs his daughter in the Law is like one who teaches her indecorous things (Soṭah iii. 4). Yet there werealways educated, even learned, women. These principles obtained throughout the Middle Ages. Since religion entered into the whole sphere of life, as in determining the calendar, in agriculture, etc., astronomy and mathematics formed an integral part of instruction. Indeed, it is said that knowledge of these sciences reflected honor upon Israel in the eyes of the nations (Shab. 75a, with reference to Deut. iv. 6). Furthermore, it was the duty of a father to let his son learn a trade, not only that he might be able to support himself, but also because a one-sided intellectual occupation with the Torah was not considered to be conducive to success, but rather a drawback from a moral point of view (Ab. ii. 2; Ḳid. 29a). According to one opinion, a father was in duty bound to have his son taught even swimming (Ḳid. l.c.).
With the dissolution of the Jewish state, the Jewish system of education, while preserving intact its main characteristics, began to be differentiated according to the varying surroundings and outward circumstances of the Diaspora. In Egypt and in other countries along the Mediterranean, Judaism succumbed to Hellenism; but in Palestine the former conquered the latter so completely that after the destruction of the Temple the scribes formally banished Greek learning from the Jewish schools (Yer. Peah i.; B. Ḳ. 82b, 83a; Soṭah 41a; Men. 64b, 99b). But this uncompromising attitude toward "alien sciences" has never been adhered to either in principle or in practise. The Middle Ages furnish abundant proofs that the Jews took a large part in the culture and learning of the nations among which they dwelt.Post-Talmudic Education.
Even after the dissolution of the Jewish state, Palestine remained for some time the seat of the patriarchy, and in consequence the center of Judaism. The most momentous achievement of that period was the final compilation of the Mishnah; and this became the foundation for all the lectures and discussions in the schools. Toward the end of the fifth century this compilation was edited under the name "Gemara" or "Talmud," and became the principal subject for study in the schools of the Diaspora. Babylon contributed largely to the work through its flourishing academies in Nehardea, Sura, and Pumbedita. The schoolhouse ("sidra," from which the presiding officer was called "resh sidra") was visited by hundreds of pupils, who listened all day long to the lecturer or to his interpreter ("meturgeman"). Gatherings, also ("kallah"), which attracted men from far and near, were held in the spring and the fall of the year. At these gatherings lectures were delivered, important decisions, or rules of conduct, were laid down, and rabbis were appointed with certain formalities and ceremonies, which served later as patterns for European universities (compare Jacob Alting," Hebræorum Republica Scholastica," p. 122, Amsterdam, 1652). Discourses, also, called "rigle." were delivered on feast-days. Every community had, in addition to the higher schools ("metidtas"), preparatory or elementary schools (
The influence of Arabian civilization in developing the scope of Jewish education is quite noticeable. From the middle of the seventh century the rector of the academy at Sura bore the title "Gaon." The Geonim, instead of condemning secular knowledge, considered it a means for advancing and completing Jewish religious thought (Grätz, "Geschichte," v. 268). It is fair to assume that at that time, and in the homes of the great scholars of those days, in both the Orient and the Occident, special attention was paid to the system of education. A proof of this is to be found in such works as the "Testament" of Judah ibn Tibbon of Granada (1120-1190), as well as in the twenty-seventh chapter of the "Cure of Souls," by Joseph b. Judah ibn Aknin of Barcelona (end of twelfth century). Both writings give in detail a number of rules for pedagogy and for the course of instruction to be followed in the schools. Joseph ibn Aknin lays down the following desiderata for the successful teacher. He must have complete command of the subject he wishes to teach; he must carry out in his own life the principles he wishes to inculcate in his pupils; he must exact no pay for his teaching; he must look upon his pupils as if they were his own sons, and treat them accordingly; he must train his pupils to lead an ethical life; he must not be impatient, but come to his pupils with a happy countenance; and he must teach his pupils according to the range of their intellectual abilities. The following order of studies to be pursued is recommended: reading, writing, Torah, Mishnah, Hebrew grammar, poetry, Talmud, philosophy of religion, logic, arithmetic, geometry, optics, astronomy, music, mechanics, medicine, and, lastly, metaphysics. Joseph also lays down rules which the pupils are to follow. They are to keep their bodies and souls pure; not to be ashamed to ask instruction in that in which they are ignorant; not to think of future gain or that their study has an ulterior object; to commence their studies by learning the elements and principles upon which science is built; to let no moment of the day or of the night pass in idleness; to make the acquisition of wisdom an end in itself; to leave their place of residence for some other place famous for its learning; and, lastly, to show their teachers even greater honor than their parents.
From the thirteenth century onward the "seven sciences" (
Side by side with this scientific trend went the endeavor to guard Jewish education against the influences of the current culture in so far as it was a menace to religion. This was the special work of the Jews of northern France and of Germany, where their Christian neighbors also were backward in learning. This one-sidedness, and concentration shaped the system of education and teaching for the Jews of northern France and of Germany. The so-called "Maḥzor Vitry" of Simḥah b. Samuel, a pupil of Rashi, describes (§ 508) how a child received its first instruction—a description that is supplemented by the contemporaneous "Sefer Asufot":
The Wandering Scholar.
On the Feast of Weeks, the day when the Law was proclaimed, the child was handed over to the school with especial ceremony. Having been bathed and dressed, the boy was taken to the synagogue at daybreak, and placed before the Torah, from which was read the passage for the day (the Decalogue, Ex. xix. 16 et seq.). Then he was led to his teachers. While on the way he was wrapped in a shawl or a cloak to guard him from the evil eye. The teacher took the child in his arms, and then set him down. After this he took a slab upon which were written the first four and the last four letters of the Hebrew alphabet and the sentences: "Moses commanded a law, even the inheritance of the congregation of Jacob" (Deut. xxxiii. 4); "Let instruction be my vocation"; and the first verse of Leviticus. This slab was placed at the head of the infant in his cradle when he was named; even in ancient times it was used for the first instruction with the idea that the slab which treated of the pure (the sacrifices) should first occupy the attention of the pure (the children). The teacher then pronounced slowly all the letters of the alphabet, the pupil repeating them. The last four letters were pronounced in their proper order as one word (
V05p046002.jpg), and also backward as one word ( V05p046003.jpg). The slab was smeared with honey, which the child might lick off and taste as it were the sweetness of instruction. There was also a honey-cake made of three kinds of fine flour, upon which were marked the Biblical verses Ezek. iii. 3; Isa. i. 4, 5; Ps. cxix. 9, 11, 12, 13, 34, 97, 130, 140.
There was also an egg inscribed with Biblical verses—a supposed preventive of forgetfulness. While reading the pupils were required to sway their bodies and to recite to a certain tune, which varied with the different parts of the Bible. The text was translated into the vernacular. The children soon advanced to the Mishnah and Talmud, so that at thirteen years of age a boy had attained a certain independence and was in a position to enter the yeshibah or academy. Here he listened to lectures on the Talmud remarkable for their depth and acuteness, and then took up the wandering life of the "baḥur," which resembles much that of the Christian bacchant or traveling scholar (see Baḥur). The constant influx of new elements stimulated the teaching at the academies, and this again influenced the life of the Jewish congregation. A picture of this life is to be found in the "Book of the Pious," by Judah of Ratisbon. Compared with the surrounding Christians, the Jews are seen to have been in no wise inferior to them, but, on the contrary, somewhat superior because their intellects were sharpened by Talmudic studies. A Christian lay preacher, Sebastian Lotzer, refers to the advantage enjoyed by the Jews in being instructed in the Law from their youth. The medieval period ends in France with the expulsion of the Jews from that country in 1395; in Germany with the persecution of the Jews there in 1348; and in Spain and Sicily with the expulsion of the Jews therefrom in 1492.In Amsterdam.
The ideas on education which the Spanish Jews carried with them were developed more freely in their new surroundings. In Italy especially, under the influence of the revival of learning, this was most apparent, as may be seen in the curriculum published by David Provenzale, in Mantua in 1564, for the educational institution which he had intended to found. This curriculum includes the Bible andthe Talmud with the best commentaries, Hebrew grammar, Jewish philosophy, composition and calligraphy, Latin and Italian philosophy, medicine, mathematics, cosmography, and astrology. This shows the intellectual status of the Italian Jews and how they became the teachers of nearly all the Hebraists of the age of humanism. The Spanish and Portuguese Jews carried their educational ideas also into Holland. The school at Amsterdam, which Spinoza attended, was admired by Shabbethai Sheftel Hurwitz ("Wawe ha-'Amuddim," 9b) on account of its systematic arrangement, and was held up as a pattern to the congregations of Germany, Austria, and Poland. According to Shabbethai Bass, it comprised six classes, the curriculum being: (1) Hebrew reading, until the prayers were mastered. (2) The Pentateuch with the tonic accents. (3) Reading and translation from the Bible, with Rashi's commentary upon the weekly section. (4) The Prophets and the Hagiographa with the tonic accents. (5) Lectures on Hebrew grammar and discussions of halakic passages from the Talmud, the class being conducted in Hebrew. (6) The school proper, called "'Eẓ Ḥayyim," and presided over by the grand rabbi. The subjects taught in the school proper were the Talmud with Rashi and Tosafot, responsa and discussions on the code of Maimonides. The hours of instruction were from 8 to 11
The educational systems of the Jews in Germany, Austria, and Poland were defective in so far as the grading of classes was so arranged that pupils were instructed in the most difficult passages of the Talmud even before they had mastered the Bible, and were thus trained to excel in sophistic dialectics. Many rabbis declaimed against these conditions, which were not improved until the beginning of the nineteenth century, and then only gradually.Eighteenth Century.
Even before Moses Mendelssohn, individual Jews had attained to the general culture of their time; for instance, the physician Tobiah Nerol, who was born in Metz, 1652, and who, by permission of the Elector of Brandenburg, had studied in Frankfort-on-the-Oder; the ichthyologist Bloch of Berlin; and others. Yet to Mendelssohn is due the general improvement of the Jewish educational system. He had many followers, who, as contributors to the Hebrew periodical "Ha-Meassef," were called "Meassefim," and were instrumental in raising their coreligionists to higher intellectual planes. In Austria especially, Hartwig Wessely's Hebrew circular letter, "Words of Peace and of Truth" (1782), in which he advocated general culture, justifying it from the standpoint of the Jewish religion, stirred up the Jews to carry out the suggestions of Emperor Joseph II. for improving their school system.
The actual systematic reorganization of the Jewish system of education and teaching dates from the founding of the following schools:
- (1) The Jewish Free School of Berlin, founded in 1778 under the leadership, of David Friedländer and Isaac Daniel Itzig. The following subjects were taught: German, French, Hebrew, business technology, arithmetic, bookkeeping, writing, and drawing.
- (2) The Wilhelm School of Breslau, founded in 1791, but discontinued soon afterward.
- (3) The Jüdische Haupt- und Freischule (Herzogliche Franzschule) of Dessau, founded in 1799 by an association of Jewish young men.
- (4) The Jacobsonschule (day-and boarding-school) of Seesen in the Harz, founded in 1801 by Israel Jacobson (born in Halberstadt 1768, died in Berlin Sept. 13, 1828). The school is, in accordance with the intentions of its humane founder, a non-sectarian educational institution for boys. It is still flourishing, and was attended between the years 1838 and 1867 by 1,444 pupils, of whom 719 were Christians.
- (5) The Real- und Volksschule der Israelitischen Gemeinde in Frankfort-on-the-Main (Philanthropin), founded in 1804 by Sigmund Geisenheimer. It was at first non-sectarian, but when the city came under Prussian rule the school was restricted to Jewish youth.
- (6) The Samson'sche Freischule of Wolfenbüttel, including a boarding-school, founded in 1807 by Isaac Herz Samson. L. Zunz and M. Jost were prepared there for the university.
- (7) The High School at Tarnopol in Galicia, founded in 1813 by Joseph Perl; its normal courses served as models for other normal schools of Austria.
Since the beginning of the nineteenth century the following governments have interested themselves in Jewish schools: Prussia, which introduced compulsory education (comp. L. Geiger, "Zeit. für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland," iii. 29 et seq.); Württemberg ("Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Deutsche Erziehungs- und Schulgeschichte," ix. 51 et seq.); Hanover, Bavaria, Baden, Hesse, etc. Since the emancipation of the Jews their children have entered the state or municipal schools, receiving religious instruction in the same way as the pupils of other denominations. In Austria the Jewish teachers of religion employed in the public schools have the same official standing as their Christian colleagues, which is not the case in Prussia. Besides this, Jewish children receive instruction also in special religious schools (Talmud Torah Schulen). The founding of Jewish elementary schools called for normal schools for Jewish teachers. In 1809 a teachers' seminary was founded at Cassel; others are in Berlin, Hanover, Münster, etc.Education of Rabbis.
With this awakening to the need of general culture came the demand for scientifically trained rabbis. The following institutions provide such training: the Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau, founded by Fränkel; the Institute for the Science of Judaism at Berlin; the Orthodox Rabbinical Seminary at Berlin; the State Rabbinical School at Budapest; the Jewish Theological Institute of Vienna. The last two institutions are supported, the first entirely, and the second partly, by the government. Similar institutions exist in Paris, London, Florence, Cincinnati, and New York (see
In the eastern countries of Europe, in Russia, Rumania, and Turkey, Jewish education is in almost the same condition as it was prior to Mendelssohn; that is, those countries are given over to one-sided Talmudic study, and hold aloof from general culture (see Alliance Israélite Universelle). The Russian government has founded rabbinical schools—for instance, at Jitomir—which furnish the officially recognized rabbis. More important, however, are the yeshibot. The rabbis who direct these are remarkable for their minute knowledge of the Talmud as well as for their antagonism to culture. In Rumania the Jews are not only curtailed in their civic rights, but their educational opportunities also are limited by the government. For education in other countries see Pedagogics.
- Güdemann, Das Jüdische Unterrichtswesen Während der Spanisch-Arabischen Periode, Vienna, 1873;
- idem, Gesch. 3 vols., Vienna, 1880-88;
- idem, Quellenschriften zur Gesch. des Unterrichts und der Erziehung bei Deutschen Juden, Berlin, 1891;
- Samuel Marcus, Die Pädagogik des Israelitischen Volkes, 2 vols., Vienna, 1877;
- B. Strassburger, Gesch. der Erziehung und des Unterrichts bei den Israeliten, mit einem Anhang, Bibliographie der Jüdischen Pädagogie, Stuttgart, 1885;
- Ludwig Horwitz, Gesch. der Herzoglichen Franzschule in Dessau 1799-1849, in Mittheilungen des Vereins für Anhaltische Gesch. und Alterthumskunde, vi.;
- Ehrenberg, Die Samson'sche Freischule im Wolfenbüttel, in Orient, Lit. 1844, pp. 66 et seq.;
- Arnheim, Die Jacobsonschule zu Seesen am Harz, Brunswick, 1867;
- Baerwald, Zur Gesch. der Real- und Volksschule der Israelitischen Gemeinde in Frankfurt-a.-M., in Einladungsschrift, 1869-75;
- Das Jüdische Schuhllehrer Seminarium in Berlin, Berlin, 1840;
- Joseph Perl's Biography, in Busch's Jahrbuch, 1846-47.
As soon as emancipation came there was a tendency among Jewish philanthropists to train their poorer coreligionists in handicrafts, though there were many difficulties in the way owing to the existence of the gilds. Thus, Jacobson wished to train Jews as artisans as early as 1805, and was encouraged by the government of Westphalia to do so, though he was informed that they would not be allowed to enter the gilds (Rülf, "Jacobson," p. 11). Notwithstanding this, many societies for the training of Jewish boys in handicrafts were formed; the earliest, so far as is known, being that established in 1793 at Copenhagen ("Orient," 1843, p. 58). This was followed at Cassel in 1802; and during the next fifty years general associations were formed in Prussia (1812), Bavaria (1830), Baden (1833), Saxony (1837), Hanover (1841), Hungary and Bohemia (1846); in many cases these general movements had been preceded by local associations, the success of which led to their spread.
In 1888 Baron de Hirsch gave large sums of money (2,000,000 gulden) for the training of Jewish artisans in Galicia and Bukowina. In the preceding year N. Händler of Leipsic had given 100,000 marks for a school for Jewish boys to be trained as artisans ("Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1888, p. 505). In 1844-45 many private benefactors devoted their money to a similar purpose. In the former year H. Todesco founded a prize of 500 florins for every Jewish journeyman who completed his apprenticeship at Vienna ("Orient," 1844, p. 188), and D. Massaroni of Rome gave 2,000 florins to the Trabotti foundation to train each year two Jewish lads as watchmakers ("Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1845, p. 654).
The following is a list of some towns and countries in which exist certain of the most effective associations that have helped to train Jews in handicrafts throughout Europe in the nineteenth century. Countries in which general institutions exist, are indicated by italics.
|1793||Copenhagen||Orient, 1843, p. 58.|
|1802||Cassel||A. Z. J. 1891, No. 12, p. 2.|
|1812||Prussia||A. Z. J. 1882, p. 71; 1900, pp. 22, vi.|
|1819||Strasburg||A. Z. J. 1840, p. 214; 1900, p. 115.|
|1823||Frankfort-on-the-Main||A. Z. J. 1845, p. 22.|
|1826||Bavaria||A. Z. J. 1888, p. 165.|
|1829||Dresden||A. Z. J. 1837, p. 4.|
|1833||Baden||A. Z. J. 1837, p. 382.|
|1834||Venice||A. Z. J. 1838, p. 497.|
|1835||Schwerin||A. Z. J. 1839, p. 393.|
|1837||Saxony||A. Z. J. 1837, p. 165.|
|1839||Budapest||A. Z. J. 1839, p. 550.|
|1840||Breslau||Orient, 1843, p. 325.|
|1841||Bonn||A. Z. J. 1841, p. 84.|
|1841||Hanover||A. Z. J. 1841, p. 325.|
|1841||Vienna||A. Z. J. 1883, p. 107; Wertheimer, Jahrb. i. 69.|
|1843||Mülhausen||A. Z. J. 1843, p. 297.|
|1843||Prossnitz||A. Z. J. 1843, p. 324.|
|1845||Mannheim||A. Z. J. 1845, p. 478.|
|1846||Prague||Wertheimer, Jahrb. iii. 52.|
|1846||Hungary ( L. Löw)||A. Z. J. 1826, p. 748.|
|1846||Bohemia||A. Z. J. 1846, p. 630.|
|1850||Bayonne||Univers. Isr. April 19, 1901.|
|1855||Posen||A. Z. J. 1842, p. 114.|
|1867||Rome||Hebt. Bibl. xix. 455.|
|1888||Galicia and Bukowina (Baron de Hirsch)||A. Z. J. 1888, p. 790.|
|A. Z. J. = Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums.|
In more recent times the Alliance Israélite Universelle and the Anglo-Jewish Association have established technical schools as part of their regular work in the East, while it is the aim of most apprenticeship committees, attached to boards of guardians and other Jewish philanthropic institutions, to train in manual labor the lads entrusted to their care. See Alliance Israélite Universelle; Anglo-Jewish Association.